capital of romania

[121][122] The Phanariot princes pursued oppressive fiscal policies and dissolved the army. Romania, country of southeastern Europe. Transylvania is a historical region that is located in central Romania. [328] Other attractions include the Danube Delta or the Sculptural Ensemble of Constantin Brâncuși at Târgu Jiu. [350], According to the 2011 census, Romania's population was 20,121,641. [303], In January 2020, Romania's external debt was reported to be US$122 billion according to CEIC data. It is located in the middle of the Romanian Plain, on the bank of the Dâmbovița River, a branch of the Danube River. word study. [470] In present-day Cristina Neagu is the most notable player and has a record four IHF World Player of the Year awards. [221], The country applied in June 1993 for membership in the European Union and became an Associated State of the EU in 1995, an Acceding Country in 2004, and a full member on 1 January 2007. The Prime Minister of the nation is the head of government. The elevation of the city varies from 183.1 feet to 300.2 feet. The account balance in 2012 was estimated to be 4.52% of GDP. Ciprian Manolescu managed to write a perfect paper (42 points) for a gold medal more times than anybody else in the history of the competition, in 1995, 1996 and 1997. [264] In May 2009, Hillary Clinton, US Secretary of State, declared that "Romania is one of the most trustworthy and respectable partners of the USA. [32][33] Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; here salt production began between 5th millennium BC and 4th BC. [246], The fauna of Romania consists of 33,792 species of animals, 33,085 invertebrate and 707 vertebrate,[246] with almost 400 unique species of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians,[247] including about 50% of Europe's (excluding Russia) brown bears[248] and 20% of its wolves. Since then, there have been several other democratic changes of government: in 1996 Emil Constantinescu was elected president, in 2000 Iliescu returned to power, while Traian Băsescu was elected in 2004 and narrowly re-elected in 2009.[213]. [399], The topic of the origin of Romanian culture began to be discussed by the end of the 18th century among the Transylvanian School scholars. The Romanian capital continues to redefine itself, merging its storied history with a modern identity. [215], Corruption has also been a major issue in contemporary Romanian politics. It is a semi-presidential republic where executive functions are held by both the government and the president. [150] The country remained neutral when World War I broke out in 1914, but Prime Minister Ion I. C. Brătianu started negotiations with the Entente Powers. [384] In 2018, the adult literacy rate was 98.8%. Bucharest is the capital of Romania. [306] Romania's rail transport experienced a dramatic decline after 1989 and was estimated at 99 million passenger journeys in 2004, but has experienced a recent (2013) revival due to infrastructure improvements and partial privatisation of lines,[255] accounting for 45% of all passenger and freight movements in the country. 2,394,284), capital and largest city of Romania, SE Romania, in Walachia, on the Dîmboviţa River, a tributary of the Danube. This lake is surrounded by the beautiful Cișmigiu Gardens that is associated with great history. [211][212], The subsequent disintegration of the Front produced several political parties, including most notably the Social Democratic Party (PDSR then PSD) and the Democratic Party (PD and subsequently PDL). A small artificial lake called the Lake Cișmigiu is located in the center of the roughly round-shaped city. [406], Prominent Romanian painters include: Nicolae Grigorescu, Ștefan Luchian, Ion Andreescu Nicolae Tonitza and Theodor Aman. [368] In 2010, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie identified 4,756,100 French speakers in the country. [114], The united armies of the Holy League expelled the Ottoman troops from Central Europe between 1684 and 1699, and the Principality of Transylvania was integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy. [17] It has the world's 45th largest economy by nominal GDP, with an annual economic growth rate of 3.5% as of 2020. [389], Romania ranks fifth in the all-time medal count at the International Mathematical Olympiad with 316 total medals, dating back to 1959. In Transparency International's 2019 Corruption Perceptions Index, Romania's public sector corruption score deteriorated to 44 out of 100, reversing gains made in previous years. 1. Most Wallachian and Moldavian princes paid a regular tribute to the Ottoman sultans from 1417 and 1456, respectively. As the capital of the country, Romania houses the important government buildings of the national government. Many beautiful structures were built in Bucharest during this kingdom’s rule. [68] The Romanians also adopted Old Church Slavonic as their liturgical language. [310] In 2015, the main sources were coal (28%), hydroelectric (30%), nuclear (18%), and hydrocarbons (14%). What Is The Capital Of Romania? [281], In 2019, Romania has a GDP (PPP) of around $547 billion and a GDP per capita (PPP) of $28,189. [167][168] The democratic parties were squeezed between conflicts with the fascist and anti-Semitic Iron Guard and the authoritarian tendencies of King Carol II. Castles, fortifications, or strongholds as well as preserved medieval Transylvanian cities or towns such as Cluj-Napoca, Sibiu, Brașov, Bistrița, Mediaș, Cisnădie, or Sighișoara also attract a large number of tourists. [434], The governing body is the Romanian Football Federation, which belongs to UEFA. [431][432] Traditional alcoholic beverages also include wine, rachiu, palincă and vișinată, but beer consumption has increased dramatically over recent years. en 1861 – City becomes capital of Romania. [194][195] Romania remained under the direct military occupation and economic control of the USSR until the late 1950s. [159][162][163] Although minorities could establish their own schools, Romanian language, history and geography could only be taught in Romanian. [70] Centuries later, the Gesta Hungarorum wrote of the invading Magyars' wars against three dukes—Glad, Menumorut and the Vlach Gelou—for Banat, Crișana and Transylvania. The capital of Romania, the sixth largest city in the EU , has become an important travel destination as a result of the business boom between Russia , Asia and Europe . On 1 March features mărțișor gifting, which is a tradition that females are gifted with a type of talisman that is given for good luck. [299], Romania has attracted increasing amounts of foreign investment following the end of Communism, with the stock of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Romania rising to €83.8 billion in June 2019. [267] After the 2009 protests in Moldova and the subsequent removal of Communists from power, relations between the two countries have improved considerably. [44] Dacia was again united under Decebalus around 85 AD. [192] Thus, they rapidly established themselves as the dominant political force. [104] Increasing taxes outraged the Transylvanian peasants, and they rose up in an open rebellion in 1437, but the Hungarian nobles and the heads of the Saxon and Székely communities jointly suppressed their revolt. The largest ethnic minorities are the Hungarians, 6.1% of the population, and the Roma, 3.0% of the population. [46] Emperor Trajan transformed Banat, Oltenia and the greater part of Transylvania into the new Roman province of Dacia, but Dacian, Germanic and Sarmatian tribes continued to dominate the lands along the Roman frontiers. It is the nation’s largest city in terms of area and population. [3] Like other countries in the region, its population is expected to decline gradually as a result of sub-replacement fertility rates and negative net migration rate. [133][134] The Wallachian revolutionists were the first to adopt the blue, yellow and red tricolour as the national flag. [277] Romanian troops participated in the occupation of Iraq, reaching a peak of 730 soldiers before being slowly drawn down to 350 soldiers. [176] The Iron Guard staged a coup against Antonescu, but he crushed the riot with German support and introduced a military dictatorship in early 1941. [41][45] He resisted the Romans for decades, but the Roman army defeated his troops in 106 AD. "Jo Jo Dan le poate calca pe urme lui Leu, Doroftei, Bute si Diaconu saptamana viitoare: "Sunt crescut in Rahova, asta spune tot, "Ghita vs. Verhoeven: Kickboxing's top heavyweights go to war on Twitter", "Adegbuyi: 'I'll show Wilnis why I'm ranked #1 at Heavyweight, Romanian Medals and Results in the Olympic Games, "40 years after perfect 10, gymnast Nadia Comaneci remains an Olympic icon", "Analysis. [151] After they promised Austrian-Hungarian territories with a majority of ethnic Romanian population to Romania in the Treaty of Bucharest, Romania entered the war against the Central Powers in 1916. The annual George Enescu Festival is held in Bucharest in honour of the 20th-century composer. During this period the regime launched several campaigns of purges during which numerous "enemies of the state" and "parasite elements" were targeted for different forms of punishment including: deportation, internal exile, internment in forced labour camps and prisons—sometimes for life—as well as extrajudicial killing. [347], The nuclear physics facility of the European Union's proposed Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) laser will be built in Romania. [332] According to the country's National Statistics Institute, some 77% came from Europe (particularly from Germany, Italy, and France), 12% from Asia, and less than 7% from North America. [270], The Air Force currently operates modernised Soviet MiG-21 Lancer fighters. Amintiri târzii cu 'Gerd Muller al României' – Fanatik.ro", "Kicker: "Nemuritorul" Dorinel Munteanu | Romania Libera", "Middlesbrough seek UEFA Cup cure – UEFA.com", "Cum putea Dinamo domina Europa, în viziunea lui Lucescu! [38][39] Among the native peoples, Herodotus listed the Getae of the Lower Danube region, the Agathyrsi of Transylvania and the Syginnae of the plains along the river Tisza at the beginning of the 5th century BC. [254] The latter is elected by popular vote for a maximum of two terms of five years and appoints the prime minister who in turn appoints the Council of Ministers. 4/2015 37 – 44Romanian Oil Industry Decline", "Romania Expects to be Energy Independent Despite Ukraine Crisis", "Contractul pentru unitatile 3 si 4 de la centrala nucleara Cernavoda se va parafa in mai. An overwhelming majority of the population identify themselves as Christians. [90] Royal charters wrote of the "Vlachs' land" in southern Transylvania in the early 13th century, indicating the existence of autonomous Romanian communities. [459] Other important Romanian football clubs are Rapid București,[460] UTA Arad,[461] Universitatea Craiova,[462] Petrolul Ploiești,[463] CFR Cluj,[464] Astra Giurgiu,[465] and Viitorul Constanța. [151][152] The German and Austrian-Hungarian troops defeated the Romanian army and occupied three-quarters of the country by early 1917. And in doubles Horia Tecău won three Grand Slams and the ATP Finals final. At first glance, the architecture is dizzying, but it's a fascinating mix. [280] Each county is subdivided further into cities and communes, which have their own mayor and local council. [236]:29 Many other lakes and gardens dot the city. [383] In 2004, some 4.4 million individuals were enrolled in school. The number of Romanians and individuals with ancestors born in Romania living abroad is estimated at around 12 million. [349] Starting in December 2014, Romania became a co-owner of the International Space Station. [316] According to Bloomberg, in 2013 Romania ranked fifth in the world, and according to The Independent, it ranks number one in Europe at Internet speeds,[317][318] with Timișoara ranked among the highest in the world. [304], According to the Romania's National Institute of Statistics (INSSE), Romania's total road network was estimated in 2015 at 86,080 kilometres (53,488 mi). it Bucarest è la capitale della Romania. It is the fourth-largest Orthodox Church in the world,[371] and unlike other Orthodox churches, it functions within a Latin culture and utilises a Romance liturgical language. [96][97] Basarab I of Wallachia united the Romanian polities between the southern Carpathians and the Lower Danube in the 1310s. [51][56], The Goths were expanding towards the Lower Danube from the 230s, forcing the native peoples to flee to the Roman Empire or to accept their suzerainty. [62][63] The nomadic Avars defeated the Gepids and established a powerful empire around 570. Following the Second World War, Bucharest flourished once again under the Communist regime. Bucharest is the capital of Romania. Pronunciation of capital of Romania with 1 audio pronunciation, 3 synonyms, 1 meaning, 14 translations and more for capital of Romania. [126][127] The Uniate bishop, Inocențiu Micu-Klein who demanded recognition of the Romanians as the fourth privileged nation was forced into exile. The market for professional football in Romania is roughly €740 million according to UEFA. ", "Romania's powerful mayors tumble in corruption crackdown", Romania PM Ponta resigns over Bucharest nightclub fire, "Huge Romania rally despite decree repeal", "Thousands of Romanians rally against ruling party's judicial overhaul", "NATO update: NATO welcomes seven new members", Human Development Report 2009 – Country Fact Sheets – Romania, "Romanian Politics in 2012: Intra-Cabinet Coexistence and Political Instability", "Romania's Infrastructure and International Transport Links", Romania, world's 53rd country in quality of life index – Denisa Morariu, Sistemul de invatamant distrus de lipsa reformelor – Cluj, D+C 2010/03 – Focus – Roos: In Romania and Bulgaria, civil-society organisations are demanding rule of law – Development and Cooperation – International Journal, "Human Development Report 2016 – "Human Development for Everyone, "Report: Romanian diaspora, fifth largest in the world", "An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm", "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity - Supplementary Material", "EarthTrends: Biodiversity and Protected Areas – Romania", "Bears. These would last until the 15th century. [107] Reformation spread and four denominations—Calvinism, Lutheranism, Unitarianism, and Roman Catholicism—were officially acknowledged in 1568. [249], Owing to its distance from open sea and its position on the southeastern portion of the European continent, Romania has a climate that is temperate and continental, with four distinct seasons. For the next two centuries, Bucharest experienced numerous ups and downs. BUCHAREST Bucharest, in southern Romania, is the country's capital and commercial center. He was World Number 2 in 2015. Overall, it has played in seven World Cups and had its most successful period during the 1990s, when it finished 6th at the 1994 FIFA World Cup, eventually being ranked 3rd by FIFA in 1997.[435]. In the club competition Romanian teams have won the EHF Champions League a total of three times, Steaua București won in 1968 as well as 1977 and Dinamo București won in 1965. [189] In February 1947, the Paris Peace Treaties confirmed the return of Northern Transylvania to Romania, but they also legalised the presence of units of the Red Army in the country. [388], Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iași, Babeș-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, University of Bucharest, and West University of Timișoara have been included in the QS World University Rankings' top 800. [105] The formal alliance of the Hungarian, Saxon, and Székely leaders, known as the Union of the Three Nations, became an important element of the self-government of Transylvania. This surprise victory was attributed by many analysts to the implication of the Romanian diaspora in the voting process, with almost 50% casting ballots for Klaus Iohannis in the first round, compared to only 16% for Ponta. Romania was occupied by Soviet troops in 1944 and became a satellite of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) in 1948. [204] At the same time, close ties with the Arab countries and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) allowed Romania to play a key role in the Israel–Egypt and Israel–PLO peace talks.[205]. [184] To facilitate the coordination of their activities against Antonescu's regime, the National Liberal and National Peasants' parties established the National Democratic Bloc, which also included the Social Democratic and Communist parties. The city is also well-equipped with renowned educational institutes, cultural venues, recreational areas, and more. Hung… [322] More than 60% of the foreign visitors in 2007 were from other EU countries. [479] The Romanian competitors have won gold medals in other Olympic sports: athletics, canoeing, wrestling, shooting, fencing, swimming, weightlifting, boxing, and judo.[480]. During the World Wars, Bucharest went through periods of economic slowdown. [57][59][60] The Huns forced the remnants of the local population into submission, but their empire collapsed in 454. [412], In cinema, several movies of the Romanian New Wave have achieved international acclaim. However, the Ottomans did manage to gain control over the region. [99][100] The second Romanian principality, Moldavia, achieved full autonomy during the reign of Bogdan I around 1360. [102][103] A military commander of Romanian origin, John Hunyadi, organised the defence of the Kingdom of Hungary until his death in 1456. [67] After the Avar Khaganate collapsed in the 790s, Bulgaria became the dominant power of the region, occupying lands as far as the river Tisa. Foreign citizens and stateless persons who live in Romania have access to justice and education in their own language. Romania is a semi-presidential representative democratic republic. Romania borders Bulgaria, Ukraine, Hungary, Serbia, and Moldova to the south, north, west, south-west, and east, respectively. Bucharest is also the industrial, commercial, and transportation hub of Romania. Use the “Crossword Q & A” community to ask for help. [345], In the early 2010s, the situation for science in Romania was characterised as "rapidly improving" albeit from a low base. The country has a bicameral legislature comprising of the Chamber of Deputies as the lower house and the Senate as the upper house. [36][37] The Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd millennium BC. In February 1947, he and others forced King Michael I to abdicate and leave the country and proclaimed Romania a people's republic. In November 2014, Sibiu (German: Hermannstadt) former FDGR/DFDR mayor Klaus Iohannis was elected president, unexpectedly defeating former Prime Minister Victor Ponta, who had been previously leading in the opinion polls. [263], In December 2005, President Traian Băsescu and United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice signed an agreement that would allow a U.S. military presence at several Romanian facilities primarily in the eastern part of the country. [223] This has been accompanied by a significant improvement in living standards as the country successfully reduced domestic poverty and established a functional democratic state. [285] According to the World Bank, Romania is a high-income economy. [117] The Orthodox Church was restored in Transylvania only after Orthodox monks stirred up revolts in 1744 and 1759. [78], Byzantine missionaries proselytised in the lands east of the Tisa from the 940s[79] and Byzantine troops occupied Dobruja in the 970s. Over 12.8 million passengers flew through Bucharest's Henri Coandă International Airport in 2017. Bucharest is the capital of Romania. The country is governed on the basis of a multi-party democratic system and the separation of powers between the legislative, executive and judicial branches. [174] After the territorial losses, the King was forced to abdicate in favour of his minor son, Michael I, on 6 September, and Romania was transformed into a national-legionary state under the leadership of General Ion Antonescu. A National Anticorruption Directorate was formed in the country in 2002. [288] According to The World Bank, GDP per capita in purchasing power parity grew from $13,687 in 2007 to $28,206 in 2018. The most notable players include Ștefan Birtalan, Vasile Stîngă (all-time top scorer in the national team) and Gheorghe Gruia who was named the best player ever in 1992. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest. [3] Bucharest is the capital and the largest city in Romania, with a population of over 1.8 million in 2011. Gheorghe Zamfir", "Gheorghe Zamfir, master of the pan pipe". Spot the French Influences on Bucharest. The capital city has an area of 228 square km and a population of 1,883,425 individuals. [144], The Transylvanian Romanians and Saxons wanted to maintain the separate status of Transylvania in the Habsburg Monarchy, but the Austro-Hungarian Compromise brought about the union of the province with Hungary in 1867. [85], Exposed to nomadic incursions, Transylvania developed into an important border province of the Kingdom of Hungary. [188][189] The Romanian administration in Northern Transylvania was soon restored, and Groza's government carried out an agrarian reform. [466], Tennis is the second most popular sport. [91] Papal correspondence mentions the activities of Orthodox prelates among the Romanians in Muntenia in the 1230s. Beneath the streets of Romania’s capital, a living hell. The core player of this golden generation was Gheorghe Hagi, who was nicknamed "Maradona of the Carpathians". ", "Arad: "Bătrâna Doamnă", UTA Arad, împlinește, joi, 74 de ani. [142] The Great Powers acknowledged Romania's full independence at the Congress of Berlin and Carol I was crowned king in 1881. There is also a semi-legal, informal private tutoring system used mostly during secondary school, which prospered during the Communist regime. sfn error: no target: CITEREFHitchins1991 (, Giurescu, "'Alegeri' după model sovietic", p.17 (citing Berry), 18 (citing Berry and note); Macuc, p.40; Tismăneanu, p.113. [156][157] Peace treaties with Austria, Bulgaria and Hungary delineated the new borders in 1919 and 1920, but the Soviet Union did not acknowledge the loss of Bessarabia. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}46°N 25°E / 46°N 25°E / 46; 25, – in Europe (green & dark grey)– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]. capital of Romania - national capital and largest city of Romania in southeastern Romania Bucharest , Bucharesti , Bucuresti Romania , Roumania , Rumania - a republic in southeastern Europe with a short coastline on the Black Sea [338] Lazăr Edeleanu was the first chemist to synthesise amphetamine, and he also invented the procedure of separating valuable petroleum components with selective solvents. [373] Romania has the world's third-largest Eastern Orthodox population.[374][375]. The NUTS-3 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) level divisions of the European Union reflect Romania's administrative-territorial structure and correspond to the 41 counties plus Bucharest. In October 2011, Romanians made up 88.9% of the population. Romania is divided into 41 counties (județe, pronounced judetse) and the municipality of Bucharest. [178] The country regained Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, and the Germans placed Transnistria (the territory between the rivers Dniester and Dnieper) under Romanian administration. [92] Also in the 13th century, during one of its greatest periods of expansion, the Republic of Genoa started establishing many colonies and commercial and military ports on the Black Sea, in the current territory of Romania. Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. [286], After 1989 the country experienced a decade of economic instability and decline, led in part by an obsolete industrial base and a lack of structural reform. Sper să nu prind ziua când ne vor bate iar, "Ne-a părăsit Ştefan Sameş, fostul mare fundaş al Stelei", "L'Equipe: Nicolae Dobrin, cel mai valoros jucător român din istorie. The municipality of Bucharest is a special case, as it enjoys a status on par to that of a county. With an area of 238,397 sq. The vast majority of the population identifies as ethnic Romanian and Eastern Orthodox Christian and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. Also Virginia Ruzici won the French Open in 1978, and was runner-up in 1980, Simona Halep won the French Open in 2018 and Wimbledon in 2019 after losing her first three Grand Slam finals. [202], In 1965, Nicolae Ceaușescu came to power and started to conduct the country's foreign policy more independently from the Soviet Union. The process succeeded in repaying all of Romania's foreign government debt in 1989. Peaceful demonstrations degenerated into violence, prompting the intervention of coal miners summoned by Iliescu. [471] In women's handball, powerhouse CSM București lifted the EHF Champions League trophy in 2016. The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung",[24] is notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească (old spelling for "The Romanian Land"; țeara from the Latin terra, "land"; current spelling: Țara Românească). It is further divided into six sectors[236]:6 and has a prefect, a general mayor (primar), and a general city council. And a market economy women to promote feminist ideas Dacia province 52 °F ) Mongols destroyed territories! Minister of the roughly round-shaped city Transylvanian Saxons ' ancestors—came to the province in the Easter, such... 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