acute effects of toluene

Neurotoxicol Teratol 33:521–529. Human studies have reported developmental effects, such as CNS dysfunction, attention deficits, and minor craniofacial and limb anomalies, in the children of pregnant women exposed to high levels of toluene or mixed solvents by inhalation. CAS, Di Lazzaro V, Pilato F, Dileone M et al (2007) Segregating two inhibitory circuits in human motor cortex at the level of GABAA receptor subtypes: a TMS study. 1987. Summary of a symposium presented at the annual meeting of the Neurobehavioral Teratology Society, June, 2009. A 46-year-old member asked: what are the toluene carcinogenic effects on the health of a person? The greatest effect was found for an increasing number of observations of sleep., Di Lazzaro V, Pilato F, Dileone M et al (2005b) Dissociated effects of diazepam and lorazepam on short-latency afferent inhibition. Authors; Authors and affiliations; Tatsuya Hobara; Haruo Kobayashi ; Eiji Higashihara; Toshihiro Kawamoto; Tsunemi Sakai; Article. Front Psychol. Low to moderate, day-after-day exposure to toluene in your workplace can cause tiredness, confusion, weakness, drunken-type actions, memory loss, nausea, and loss of appetite. The lethal dose for man cannot be stated with certainty. Toluene toxicity refers to the harmful effects caused by toluene on the body. CAS  Am J Ind Med 16:67–77. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 76:1064–1069. J Physiol 509(Pt 2):607–618. Metrics … PubMed  Glowa JR, DeWeese J, Natale ME, Holland JJ, Dews PB., Lulic T, El-Sayes J, Fassett HJ, Nelson AJ (2017) Physical activity levels determine exercise-induced changes in brain excitability. Exposure to this chemical and loud noise may cause greater hearing loss than expected from noise exposure alone. Inappropriate behavior, mood fluctuations, and nystagmus are also common. Full text Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Methods: acute effects of toluene. edge of their acute effects on human central nervous system. the actual consumer exposure, when toluene is used as a solvent in nail products the exposure was 1.89 ppm and 2.66 ppm respectively. Acute effects of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and toluene on the hematologic parameters in dogs. Clin Neurophysiol 118:2207–2214. If swallowed, toluene can greatly impair the function of the kidney and liver. Mol Pharmacol 57:1199–1205, PubMed  Neurosci Biobehav Rev 32:910–926. Acute Effects: Acute exposure to high levels of 2,4-toluene diisocyanate in humans, via inhalation, results in severe irritation of the skin, eyes, and nose, and causes nausea and vomiting. Following acute exposure in humans, adverse effects included headaches, fatigue, eye irritation, increased tendency to sleep, and memory impairment (Echeverria et al., 1991). PubMed Central  Concentrations corresponded to the German TLV (TRGS 403). Ce programme a inclus des expériences caractérisant les effets comportementaux et neurophysiologiques de l'inhalation des vapeurs, le développement de modèles numériq… J Physiol 590:2767–2782, Hanajima R, Ugawa Y, Terao Y et al (1998) Paired-pulse magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex: differences among I waves. J Physiol 471:501–519. *7l�Fy��A~���Iv�)�AN��f:ژ9�ߝ�|�Lah3.��~f�3��/_;uӱ���j�=��gO������5����c�㸼����}r��d�v���~@�uf���y^�_�I��&W�YG�T �����p.�p���|�2���i���@f�DFC=rk0� -��\m�!�L1���J;&٠��^�8�[KJ!��JH_�b. S u m m a r y o f s u b c h r o n i c a n d c h r o n i c t o l u e n e i n h a l a t i o n s t u d i e s i n a n i m a l s ....80 Table B1-1. Google Scholar, Bushnell PJ, Kavlock RJ, Crofton KM et al (2010) Behavioral toxicology in the 21st century: challenges and opportunities for behavioral scientists. h�bbd``b`z$�A�^ ��Ī���� �$�ĺb9�X ��]"� � @�!H�mPS\cd��e`�&���� �?, Article, Di Lazzaro V, Oliviero A, Meglio M et al (2000a) Direct demonstration of the effect of lorazepam on the excitability of the human motor cortex. J Neurophysiol 104:2603–2614. PubMed Central  Toluene vapor has a sharp or sweet odor, which is a sign of exposure. - Metabolism in humans ... Often toluene exposure occurs in conjunction with benzene and since they are to some degree metabolised by the same enzymes, the relative concentrations will determine their rate of elimination. Neurotoxicology 48:50–59. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 7:28–37. �������R�lHYĬ$���n�(���=���ȦUD�����(S%�B�����'�e��:�w�#\�fN��vp>j��$�u�}� t#B�S}�ֱ��=c�C����2�e�x(2��A�ջE��!�[#3 �1�r0^H(A-.�C�,]��J�,�Î���v�� q��13L|s�{��^^!! Here we report the effects of a toluene-ace-tone mixture. Min-Fang Kuo. Act Nerv Super (Praha) 23:177–179, ICIS (2007) Toluene uses and market data, 2007., Ilić TV, Meintzschel F, Cleff U et al (2002) Short-interval paired-pulse inhibition and facilitation of human motor cortex: the dimension of stimulus intensity. (2,3) Acute animal tests in rats have shown 2,4-toluene diisocyanate to have . attention, dose metric, signal detection behavior, toxicokinetics, volatile organic compounds. Effects on colour vision have been reported, but the evidence is inconclusive. Central nervous effects of low-dose exposure to neurotoxic substances in the work environment. 6 Altmetric., Örbák P, Nise G (1989) Neurasthenic complaints and psychometric function of toluene-exposed rotogravure printers., Gamberale F, Hultengren M (1972) Toluene exposure II. 1 Breathing and heart rates were recorded during two 35 minutes blocks in each session. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute exposure to toluene on cortical excitability, plasticity, and implicit motor learning in healthy volunteers. Selected subset of occupational studies of neurological effects from toluene inhalation .....74 T a b l e 2 . Environl Toxicol Pharmacol 19:607–614, Article  Request PDF | Acute high-level toluene exposure decreases hippocampal neurogenesis in rats | Toluene is an organic solvent that is used in various industrial applications. Incoordination, disequilibrium, confusion, and cognitive and memory deficits accompany these symptoms., Lo PS, Wu CY, Sue HZ, Chen HH (2009) Acute neurobehavioral effects of toluene: involvement of dopamine and NMDA receptors. CAS, Article, Nitsche MA, Paulus W (2001) Sustained excitability elevations induced by transcranial DC motor cortex stimulation in humans., Hey K, Juran S, Schaper M, Kleinbeck S, Kiesswetter E, Blaszkewicz M et al (2009) Neuro-behavioral effects during exposures to propionic acid—an indicator of chemo-sensory distraction? A total of 20 male rabbits were used as control and experimental groups. Furthermore, its acute neurophysiological effects remain poorly understood in humans. The lethal dose for man cannot be stated with certainty., Herry N, Johnston JD, Helen Venables HE et al (1983) The effects of toluene and alcohol on psychomotor performance. Furthermore, we evaluated long-term potentiation-like neuroplasticity induced by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the motor cortex, and the participants conducted a motor sequence learning task, the serial reaction time task., Stĕtkárová I, Urban P, Procházka B, Lukás E (1993) Somatosensory evoked potentials in workers exposed to toluene and styrene. J Toxicol Environ Health Part A 77:1502–1521. Methods: In a parallel design, subgroups of 12 healthy men each were exposed to a mixture containing 25 ppm acetone and 250 ppm toluene or to air (control) in an exposure chamber for 4.5 hours. A significant interaction was observed between toluene and block for HR, which could be caused by increased arousal of the toluene-naïve participants in the first block. Google Scholar, Baelum J, Andersen IB, Lundqvist GR et al (1985) Response of solvent-exposed printers and unexposed controls to six-hour toluene exposure., Nissen MJ, Bullemer P (1987) Attentional requirements of learning: evidence from performance measures. Acute exposure to toluene at a concentration of 200 ppm for 8 h produced headache, nausea, muscular weakness, confusion, impaired coordination, and dilated pupils, as well as after-effects including fatigue, general confusion, and moderate insomnia in one, two, or all of the subjects. Adverse performance at 150 ppm toluene was found at 6.0% for digit span, 12.1% for pattern recognition (latency), 5.0% for pattern memory (number correct), 6.5% for one hole, and 3.0% for critical tracking. The effects of toluene on children have not been studied very much, but toluene is likely to produce the same types of effects on the brain and nervous system in children as it does in adults. moderate . J Pharmacol Exp Ther 286:334–340, Cruz SL, Orta-Salazar G, Gauthereau MY et al (2003) Inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by toluene exposure. 123 Accesses. Toluene products are abused via inhalation for their intoxicating effects., Liepert J, Schwenkreis P, Tegenthoff M, Malin JP (1997) The glutamate antagonist Riluzole suppresses intracortical facilitation. 61 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<82E70B1567FC274B871C8704B30252CA><82E70B1567FC274B871C8704B30252CA>]/Index[40 40]/Info 39 0 R/Length 94/Prev 120988/Root 41 0 R/Size 80/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Echeverria, Diana. Toluene products are abused via inhalation for their intoxicating effects. Since toluene reaches relatively high concentrations in the CNS and is extremely lipophilic, we investigated its effects on rat brain membrane composition and function., Iregren A, Gamberale F (1990) Human behavioral toxicology. Neurology 51:1320–1324. A) USES: Toluene (toluol, methyl benzene) is an aromatic petroleum hydrocarbon that has many commercial and industrial applications. Toxicol Sci 98:159–166. J Physiol 586:3385–3404. Acute toluene toxicity results in lightheadedness and euphoria. It is used as a solvent and starting material for organic synthesis and is found in paints, paint thinners, glues, and other products. It was concluded that there is good evidence that toluene has no acute effects on colour discrimination for exposures in the region of 300-350 ppm for 30 minutes and 50-150 ppm 8h TWA. Toluene is typically used in a mixture with other solvents and chemicals such as paint pigments. Dr. Ed Kaplan answered. Combinations of toluene and some common medicines like aspirin and acetaminophen may increase the effects of toluene on your hearing. Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure: Can cause dry, red, cracked skin (dermatitis) following skin contact. Researchers do no… Google Scholar, Gauthereau MY, Salinas-Stefanon EM, Cruz SL (2005) A mutation in the local anaesthetic binding site abolishes toluene effects in sodium channels. pñ��N�GpK8W More importantly, the data also demonstrate that the acute effects of 24-h exposure to toluene cannot be accurately predicted from the effects of a 1-h exposure by use of either dose metric., Di Lazzaro V, Oliviero A, Profice P et al (2000b) Muscarinic receptor blockade has differential effects on the excitability of intracortical circuits in the human motor cortex. Subscription will auto renew annually. Google Scholar, Bowen SE, Wiley JL, Jones HE, Balster RL (1999) Phencyclidine- and diazepam-like discriminative stimulus effects of inhalants in mice. Ask doctors free . Exposure to higher concentrations leads to clouding or loss of consciousness., Beckstead MJ, Weiner JL, Eger EI et al (2000) Glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptor function is enhanced by inhaled drugs of abuse. behavioural effects were attributable to toluene, al-thoughCNSsymptomswerereported. Work Environ Health 9:131–139, CAS  Both heart and breathing rates increased during cycling. I. These studies indicate that toluene produces a number of subjective sensations such as headache, dizziness, feeling of intoxication, irritation and sleepiness and decreases in acute neurobehavioural performance at concentrations = 75 ppm (EU RAR, 2003). Toluene is a widely used organic solvent that can produce acute central nervous system (CNS) effects. The acute phase effects of toluene on the brain have been investigated in this study using rabbit brain via histopathological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical methods. Toluene, a widely used and commonly abused organic solvent, causes a variety of behavioral disturbances in both humans and animals. Toluene vapor has a sharp or sweet odor, which is a sign of exposure. Eur J Med Res 10:381–388, Nakamura H, Kitagawa H, Kawaguchi Y, Tsuji H (1997) Intracortical facilitation and inhibition after transcranial magnetic stimulation in conscious humans. toluene side effects. edge of their acute effects on human central nervous system. Subtle acute effects, however, were found just below and above the ACGIH TLV of 100 ppm toluene, supporting the position that the guideline be lowered since the biological threshold of behavioural effects may be comparable with the TLV. This study encourages further research to obtain more knowledge about mechanisms of action and effects of toluene on both naïve and chronically exposed populations., Kujirai T, Caramia MD, Rothwell JC et al (1993) Corticocortical inhibition in human motor cortex. These behavioral flexibility deficits observed suggests dysfunctional medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity., Ortu E, Deriu F, Suppa A et al (2008) Intracortical modulation of cortical-bulbar responses for the masseter muscle. For the same scenarios the MOS for reproductive toxicity These results suggest that toluene might act by modulating NMDA receptor activity, as well as cortical glutamatergic and cholinergic neurotransmission in the human brain. It is also absorbed via inhalation, and to a lesser degree, through the skin. Exp Brain Res 135:455–461. These symptoms usually disappear when exposure is stopped. Another complication in the literature on the acute effects of toluene is that the course of effects or the effective dose may differ depending on the behavioral test used. Scand J Work Environ Health 11:271–280., Bushnell PJ, Shafer TJ, Bale AS et al (2005) Developing an exposure-dose-response model for the acute neurotoxicity of organic solvents: overview and progress on in vitro models and dosimetry. The animals exposed to toluene showed significantly decreased hippocampal neurogenesis, which persisted until the 8th and final day of measurement. Exp Transl Stroke Med 3(1):4, Article  Incoordination, disequilibrium, confusion, and cognitive and memory deficits accompany these symptoms. A smaller mesh … Br J Pharmacol 140:653–660. Article  Higher concentrations produced effects similar to the 200-ppm exposure; however, the effects were more pronounced and … The evidence suggests that inhaling toluene at 100 ppmover seven hours can cause slight impair-ments in vigilance, manual dexterity, and, perhaps, in visual memory.Theobjective ofthe present study was to determine whether these acute effects would et al. The acute behavioural effects of inhaling toluene after a single exposure are reversible,1 but although revers ible, they may also be an early sign of central nervous system (CNS) impairment leading to irreversible losses, Rioult-Pedotti MS, Friedman D, Donoghue JP (2000) Learning-induced LTP in neocortex. This research was funded by Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund, Germany. In addition, in this study, we focused on the acute effect of toluene exposure on persistent expression of mRNA level rather than transient changes. Br J Pharmacol 137:375–383. The acute systemic effects of inhaled toluene vapour result in central nervous disorders such as headaches, dizziness, nausea, unsteady gait and coordination disorders. Brain Stimul 1:206–223. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Muttray A, Martus P, Schachtrup S et al (2005) Acute effects of an organic solvent mixture on the human central nervous system. J Physiol 569:315–323. The number of headaches and eye irritation also increased in a dose response manner. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 77:1–9. Furthermore, its acute neurophysiological effects remain poorly understood in humans. The acute CNS effects of toluene reverse quickly after cessation of the … PubMed  CAS  Arito H, Tsuruta H, Nakagaki K. Toxicology, (3-4):291-301 MED: 6083632 ACUTE EXPOSURE. %PDF-1.6 %���� On the behavioural level, toluene did not alter performance of the motor learning task., PubMed  Rats exposed to toluene vapor during adolescence and tested as adults performed comparably to air-treated controls and were susceptible to the effects of an acute toluene challenge. J Physiol 527:633–639., Chen R (2000) Studies of human motor physiology with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Inappropriate behavior, mood fluctuations, and nystagmus are also common. The toluene injection produced an initial increase in wakefulness (W) and a subsequent increase in slow-wave sleep (SWS) during the dark period. J Neural Transm 104:1207–1214. Neuroscience 130:197–206. Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material. Samples of chamber air for analysis were taken through another port. Muscle Nerve Suppl 9:S26–S32. In humans a number of subjective sensations such as headache, dizziness, feeling of intoxication, irritation and sleepiness and decreases in acute neurobehavioural performance are seen following acute exposure = 75 ppm. h��Zmo��+��F�=� �(�]�i`�I��}�HG�,ҹ��}�g�ܻ[ɍ�iZ#�q�2>�̐��5��Ť`$F���ٙ�PY�Iو�-Fj��j�H6��|5YPV1��b,&{S�8�JgM��ڀ��Ԍ�r6��+(k6_|�8z�h�rs�O�����������.N.O�.���ۣG�'��ݛ�O/./�x��}d��룟�O���m�O����O�����7�W���/�Y?3۫��w�o_����x��n'k#������b��R��,�\��9{��+vC����Ѧ5�5H�i��|���$�����_�O��!�d�7Ov ������%�!zqq��^��o��mU��f�n��뇓�����=^_\������Y�ڮ��N�]�=��8�n�}�Rƾ��������a}�a�'�������k�����Kt����� With higher levels of exposure, unconsciousness, coma, and death may occur. Of course the longer it takes for toluene to be eliminated the more harm it is likely to do. Acute and chronic exposure to this substance have yielded a range of side effects observed in both humans and animals. Each block consisted of seven interleaved 5-minutes resting and cycling blocks. In one case, a person who had ingested toluene died following “a severe depression of the [central nervous system],” and showed signs of tubular kidney necrosis and swollen liver. PubMed Google Scholar. Google Scholar, Klass M et al (2012) Effects of noradrenaline and dopamine on supraspinal fatigue in well-trained men. Correspondence to �x�%, Ziemann U (2004) TMS and drugs. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Department of Psychology and Neurosciences, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, 44139, Dortmund, Germany, Fatemeh Yavari, Michael A. Nitsche & Min-Fang Kuo, Department of Toxicology, Networking Group: Neurotoxicology and Chemosensation, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, 44139, Dortmund, Germany, University Medical Hospital Bergmannsheil, 44789, Bochum, Germany, You can also search for this author in Full text Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Acta Medica Croat 51:215–219, Yamaguchi T, Fujiwara T, Liu W, Liu M (2012) Effects of pedaling exercise on the intracortical inhibition of cortical leg area. Neurotoxicol Teratol 32:313–328. Top answers from doctors based on your search: Disclaimer. In order to assay the effects of inhaled toluene on hippocampal neurogenesis, we measured the levels of neurogenesis markers Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX) in the hippocampus 1, 2, 5, …, Article, Nitsche MA, Cohen LG, Wassermann EM et al (2008) Transcranial direct current stimulation: state of the art 2008. These OELs or short-term exposure limits vary from 14 to 300 ppm across countries partly due to heterogeneity of the findings from animal and human studies about its neurotoxic effects and the evaluation of the adversity of the underlying mechanisms.,,,;2-I,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Supplemental Fig.

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