how to avoid ending a sentence with a preposition

That silly notion was promulgated centuries ago by people who thought "elegant" English should obey Latin rules of grammar. Please avoid the wet steps. But if you’re writing a research paper or submitting a business proposal and you want to sound very formal, avoid ending sentences with prepositions. Upon first glance, it may seem that some words at the end of a sentence are prepositions, when in fact they are parts of the verb. News flash: it doesn't and shouldn't. Because most people believe it’s incorrect and will judge you accordingly. This notion is now demolished, and writers can occasionally use prepositions at the end of the sentence if necessary. Sentences that avoid terminal prepositions by using phrases like “to whom” and “for which” sound much more formal, so it’s perfectly acceptable to avoid ending sentences with prepositions in formal writing—as long as doing so doesn’t leave you sounding like Yoda. Which journal was your article published in? Examples Formal: These are the participants on whom the experiment was conducted. She received her PhD in German studies from Rutgers University, where her dissertation focused on the function of framing devices in German realist literature. Your original sentences are fine. A preposition should be placed before a noun or a pronoun. LONG ANSWER: Many native English speakers are taught that they should not end sentences with prepositions.This is a matter of style rather than grammar. He walked down the street at a brisk pace, with his waistcoat buttoned against the cold and a jaunty top hat perched atop his stately head. Such is the case with the oft-repeated statement “never end a sentence with a preposition.” In some cases a sentence-ending preposition is inappropriate because the preposition has no object: Where is my wallet at? In the end, it all boils down to context. Rules for Ending a Sentence With a Preposition . Both ‘put up with’ and ‘hard to come by’ are commonly accepted informal phrases, and it’s OK to end sentences with them. Here are a few preposition guidelines: It’s not an error to end a sentence with a preposition, but it is a little less formal. Before coming to the MLA, she worked as a freelance copyeditor, translator, and German-language teacher. I was taught, in other words, not to dangle my prepositions—maybe you were, too. They begin with relative pronouns (who, whom, that, which) and can function as the subject or object of a sentence. Now, the practical answer: don’t do this. Scour the Internet for a hard-and-fast rule regarding the placement of prepositions and you will likely be met with a statement once (purportedly) made by Winston Churchill: “That is the type of arrant pedantry up with which I shall not put.” Whether Churchill actually said this is open to debate, but the point is crystal clear: sometimes making every possible effort to avoid a dangling preposition results in a sentence that sounds stilted or overworked. For example, a sentence ending with "put up" or "put up with" is not grammatically incorrect. Ending a sentence with a preposition is a perfectly natural part of the structure of modern English. As I eventually learned, however, the choice to end a sentence with a preposition is just that: a choice, not an error to be avoided at all costs. Both ‘put up with’ and ‘hard to come by’ are commonly accepted informal phrases, and it’s OK to end sentences with them. Note, however, that you should avoid these phrases in formal writing. To simplify, prepositions are the glue that binds a sentence together. If you want proof, check out this list of references on ending a sentence with a preposition. Let’s try that again: Unless you’re a time traveler from another era, you’ll probably use the second sentence when speaking. Consider the English: The chair which he sat on. Ending a sentence with a preposition is a perfectly natural part of the structure of modern English. It said that using prepositions at the end of a sentence is wrong. However, it is still best to try to conform to this rule if it does not alter clarity, particularly in professional and academic writing. He walked down the street at a brisk pace, with his waistcoat buttoned against the cold and a jaunty top hat perched atop. Business or academic writing In business or academic writing, try to avoid ending a sentence with a preposition. In many instances, wording a phrase or sentence to avoid having a preposition at the end results in an awkward-sounding arrangement. So, to keep everyone happy, try to avoid ending … Sometimes it is possible to rewrite the sentence without the preposition. The sentences below are correct. Ending a sentence with a preposition such as "with," "of," and "to," is permissible in the English language. Trying to rephrase a sentence such as “There is nothing to be afraid of” so that you can avoid ending it with a preposition will leave you with an alternative that is less than ideal: “There is nothing of which to be afraid” strikes one as too formal, too far removed from conventional language, even that of academic prose. Posts and updates about MLA style an awkward-sounding arrangement I can think all of these sentences avoid has a object! Has a direct object √ they must be convinced of the commitment they are taking on they must convinced. 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