münsterberg case 1908

The whole affair took less than twenty seconds. Public opinion, and court and jury as its organs, are always inclined to claim that whole borderland field still for the normal life and to acknowledge the mental disturbance only when the disease region is entered. Whenever the visions were given to the protocol before-hand, the percentage of true realisations remains completely within the narrow limits of chance coincidents and natural probability. No mental explanation is in order till the facts themselves are cleared up by methods for which the scholar is not prepared at all. It seems like the other pole of the social world if we turn from these cruel court procedures to the helpful humanity of our hospitals for the insane. Münsterberg encountered immense turmoil with the outbreak of the First World War. Prince's case or the reflecting eye-glass in that other case. Finally, as to the amount of clothes which they had taken, I asserted that the burglars did not get more than a specified list which I had given the police. Our mind has to sift and sift. But when I hypnotised her, I understood what had happened. But besides the omissions there were only six among the forty which did not contain positively wrong statements; in twenty-four papers up to ten per cent, of the statements were free inventions, [p. 53] and in ten answers -- hat is, in one-fourth of the papers, -- more than ten per cent. The slightest fault in his real past takes, in this illusory [p. 149]affective state, new and gigantic dimensions; long-forgotten mistakes awake with unproportionate feelings of anguish. But when I expressed thus my firm conviction, I had, nevertheless, the uncanny feeling that there was something obscure in the case. Everyone knows in daily life the type of the superficial, silly person whose attention is always shifting, and yet it is only an absurd exaggeration of such behaviour that characterises the alienation of the maniac. The psychologist feels no difficulty in explaining it, but it ought to stand as a great warning signal before the minds of those who believe that the feeling of certainty in recollection secures objective truth. The smallest number of mistakes gave twenty-six per cent. The testimonies show that the young man was everywhere regarded as a thoughtful, obliging fellow of exceptionally good disposition, but often exhibiting marked stupidity. All that is still normal; there is no education and no art, no politics and no religion without suggestion, and yet suggestion is certainly to a high degree a suppression of objective memory. I could [p. 169] not foresee that all the explanation I was looking for would be furnished only a few days later by Nature herself. Hugo Münsterberg (1908/1925) THE MEMORY OF THE WITNESS. Thus they urged the poor women prisoners, starting from the conviction that the unwillingness to confess showed that their minds were wholly given over to Satan. The public in the main suspects that the witness lies, while taking for granted that if he is normal and conscious of responsibility he may forget a thing, but it would not believe that he could remember the wrong thing. A colleague once wanted me to hypnotise him because he had just, in his fortieth year, discovered that he had no power of optical remembering; he hoped to get it through hypnosis, and yet he had never missed it until he read of it in a psychological book. To point again to an apparently mysterious experience: the crystal gazer feels in his half hypnotic state a free play of inspired imagination, and yet in reality he experiences only a stirring up of the deeper layers of memory pictures. Ausg. The scientific commission which reported the details of the inquiry came to the general statement that the majority of the observers omitted or falsified about half of the processes which occurred completely in their field of vision. The preposterous accusations were for them too sufficient proof of guilt, and not to confess appeared to them as obstinacy. Even the self-accusations and the self-destructive despair of the melancholic find their counterpart in the realm of normal life; the pessimist is too often inclined to torture himself by opprobriums, to feel discouraged with himself, and to feel guilty without real guilt. The observation itself may be defective and illusory; wrong associations [p. 57] may make it imperfect; judgments may misinterpret the experience; and suggestive influences may falsify the data of the senses. In that moment Professor Liszt secures order and asks a part of the students to write an exact account of all that has happened. The young man's alibi proof, brought forward by his friends, seemed to me convincing. For the other type it would depend upon the [p. 56] congruity of an image with other previously accepted images; that is, on the absence of conflicts, when the experience judged about is imagined as part of a wide setting of past experiences. Münsterberg encountered immense turmoil with the outbreak of the First World War. There is no mental trait which belongs [p. 152] to mental diseases only; whatever we find in the asylums is made up of the same material that enters into the normal interplay of human minds. The detective may bring out much evidence which lies outside of the realm of physicians, which yet may be a closed book to the naïve view of psychical life. That a clock was lying on the table, packed ready to be taken away, had impressed itself clearly on my memory; but that it was packed in a tablecloth had made evidently too slight an impression on my consciousness. [p. 64] Wherever the speech intonation agreed with that of the whole song, they acknowledged the authentic origin, and where it did not agree they recognised an interpolation of the text. The correlations between attention, recollection, and feeling of certainty become the more complex the more we carefully study them. Is it not more natural to suppose that every day errors creep [ p. 44] into the work of justice through wrong evidence which has the outer marks of truth and trust-worthiness? He feels the duty of putting his best will into the effort to reproduce the whole truth and nothing but the truth. [sic] of the facts omitted; twelve omitted forty to fifty per cent., and thirteen still more than fifty per cent. This crime itself, no matter [p. 142] who may be the criminal, was one of the frightful fruits of a sickly paltering with the stern administration of law. That we forget, is in itself certainly no defect and no pathological symptom. While I was with my family at the seashore my city house had been burglarised and I was called upon to give an account of my findings against the culprit whom they had caught with a part of the booty. We know and can test with the subtlest means the waves of fluctuating attention through which [p. 65] ideas become reinforced and weakened. As a matter of course, the opposite can thus happen, too; that is, an earlier experience may come to our memory stripped of every reference to the past, standing before our mind like a completely new product of imagination. I know that the very first thing that the Inspector said to me when I was brought to him was, 'You did this.' Münsterberg produced more than a dozen major books, including his best known works On the Witness Stand (1908), Psychology General and Applied (1914b), and Psychology and Industrial Efficiency (1913b). My imagination gradually substituted the more usual method of packing with wrapping paper, and I was ready to take an oath on it until I went back later, at the end of the summer vacation. They go on thinking that their legal instinct and their common sense supplies them with all that is needed and somewhat more” (p. 11). Hugo Münsterberg (June 1, 1863 – December 16, 1916) was a German-American psychologist.He was one of the pioneers in applied psychology, extending his research and theories to Industrial/Organizational (I/O), legal, medical, clinical, educational and business settings.Münsterberg encountered immense turmoil with the outbreak of the First World War. I stood there, also, without prejudice against the defendant. [p. 165] Suddenly he began to confess, and he was quite willing to repeat his confession again and again. Our own doings, of which we know, perhaps, through our muscle sensations, are in themselves no better material for our reproduction in memory than the scenes which we have seen and the words which we have heard. Now we should not ask a short-sighted man for the slight visual details of a far distant scene, yet it cannot be safer to ask a man of the acoustical memory type for strictly optical recollections. The court proceeds as if the physiological chemistry of blood examination had made wonderful progress, while experimental psychology, with its efforts to analyse the mental faculties, still stood where it stood two thousand years ago. New leading impulses, new groups of memory associations, new groups of feelings enter each time into play and change the whole aspect of our life. Münsterberg’s 1908 book, On the Witness Stand, pioneered the development of that area of applied psychology. And more important still is the suggestiveness of the whole situation and especially of its social elements. Is the vivid pair, or the frequently repeated pair, or the recent pair better remembered? Recalling his impressions, Münsterberg could have been biased by them, but decided to rely on science: “I cannot deny that my impression on that first morning was very unfavourable. Hugo Münsterberg. As mistakes there were counted the omissions, the wrong additions and the alterations. The judge has to make up his mind as soon as there is any doubt on which side the evidence on an issue of fact preponderates. He first listened to Orchard and made observations about his appearance. The trait becomes psychologically alarming as soon as the balance is sufficiently destroyed to make the purposes of life impossible. On the Witness Stand Essays on Psychology and Crime 1908 [Leather Bound] [Hugo Münsterberg] on Amazon.com. No doubt, the chances for such influences were different, too, at various times and in different social conditions. Hugo Münsterberg's Psychology and Law: A Historical and Contemporary Assessment (American Psychology-Law Society Series) eBook: Bornstein, Brian H., Neuschatz, Jeffrey: Amazon.com.au: Kindle Store He will ask only whether the intention alone is sufficient for success and whether the memory is really improved in every respect by increased attention. His regular work was with his father at the trade of carpenter. This steady correspondence between the normal, slight variations and the hopeless disturbances, and the small steps of transition between the extremes are shown perhaps nowhere more clearly than in the field of memory. But the most surprising result of those studies was perhaps that the feeling of certainty stands in no definite relation to the attention with which the objects are observed. During the last eighteen years I have delivered about three thousand university lectures. Hugo Munsterberg published a book entitled as “On the Witness Stand” in 1908 which stirred a lot of controversies. In such case the psychologist feels it his duty fearlessly to oppose the popular prejudice. Words were put into the mouths or men who had been [p. 51] silent spectators during the whole short episode; actions were attributed to the chief participants of which not the slightest trace existed; and essential parts of the tragi-comedy were completely eliminated from the memory of a number of witnesses. The order and harmony alone are disturbed; a single feature is grossly exaggerated or unduly inhibited, and by this abnormal increase or decrease of a regular trait the balance is lost and danger is ahead. It was the one missing link in the chain of evidence of his innocence. Persons who perhaps doubt in the reality of the enter world may be found in the asylums and on the philosophic platform; whether the doubting mind is a patient or a philosopher shows itself quickly in the consequences: the philosopher includes that doubt within an harmonious life plan, the patient's life is destroyed by his insane doubt. Wigmore, J H, "Professor Muensterberg and the Psychology of Testimony being a Report of the Case of Cokestone v Muensterberg" (1909) 3 Illinois LR 399 Wigmore, J H, Evidence in Trials at Common Law (rev by James H Chadbourn (1961- 1972) [cover title Wigmore on Evidence] The Münsterberg illusion is a compelling phenomenon for which there is no generally accepted explanation. I suppose I must have made those statements, since they all say I [p. 170] did. It started in Germany and has had there for some years even a magazine of its own. It excludes the careless, hasty, chance recollection, and stirs the deliberate attention of the witness. All were completely taken by surprise, and no one, with the exception of the President, had the slighest [sic] idea that every word and action had been rehearsed beforehand, or that photographs had been taken of the scene. The standard Münsterberg figure is a limiting and nonoptimal case where the luminances of the mortar and dark tiles are the same. When he came to the police station, he was told at once that he was the guilty man; but the accused denied everything. The second [p. 50] rushes madly upon him. Subtler experiments which were carried on in my laboratory for a long time showed that this subjective feeling of certainty can not only obtain in different degrees, but has, with different individuals, quite different mental structure and meaning. Everything seemed to point to the fact that the woman was murdered by an unknown person at another place, and that her body was dragged during the night by the copper wire coiled around her neck from another street to the barnyard. But if the psychologist has thus not seldom the wish that the detective were consulted in his place, that does not prevent his regretting sometimes that the world relies on the detective instead of calling in the psychologist. of the characteristic acts; fourteen had twenty to forty per cent. The patient accuses himself of meanness and deceit, of diabolical plans, and with growing accuracy he elaborates the minute details of his imaginary crimes. For Wundt psychology should be a pure science detached from practical concerns, while Münsterberg wanted to […] IT is a sad story which I am going to report, a weird tragedy of yesterday. Münsterberg’s 1908 book, On the Witness Stand, pioneered the development of that area of applied psychology. But variations they are, nevertheless, and only the psychologist may be clearly aware of their tendencies. She went into a trance-like state in which many disconnected memories of her early life and of happy times rushed to her consciousness, each accompanied by emotion, and these long-forgotten emotions of happiness persisted. Münsterberg encountered immense turmoil with the outbreak of the First World War. We know, above all, the inhibitory influences which result from excitements and emotions which may completely change the products of an otherwise faithful memory. From these slight traces of temperamental type to the complete alienation of the hopeless patient there is a sliding scale of depressions. Search Browse; Resources [p. 141] And if the sensational press did not manifest a judicial temper, that seemed this time very excusable. And no subjective feeling of certainty can be an objective criterion for the desired truth. The judges ignore the fact that with the same accuracy their common-sense can be transformed into careful measurements the results of which may widely differ from haphazard opinion. Uniquely examines Münsterberg's thinking by adopting the layout of his seminal text, On the Witness Stand (1908) Assesses Münsterberg's legacy: what he got right, what he … But the instinctive doubt refers primarily to veracity. "I [p. 171] saw the flash of steel in front of me." I had thus never examined the other hypothesis, and yet it was found later that they did succeed in removing the lock of a door. The variations remain, of course, mostly within the limits of normal life, as we have to call normal every setting which harmonises with the life purposes of the individual. But above all, the psychical state of the defendant himself during the trial is usually measured by the crudest standards of easy-going psychology which considers a mental life as typical and unaltered as long as the man is neither insane nor [p. 151] intoxicated. Whether the crime was done in a state of mental responsibility is certainly a question never neglected. The discussion is thus long since removed to the sphere of theoretical argument; and so the hour may be more favourable now for asking [p. 143] once more whether it is really "inconceivable" that an innocent man can confess to a crime of which he is wholly ignorant. An internet resource developed by Children do not suppress the truth, because they are naïve; the fools do not suppress it, because they are reckless; and the mind under the influence of wine does not suppress it, because the suppressing mechanism of inhibition is temporarily paralysed by alcohol. They have taken, for instance, whole epic texts and examined those lines as to which it was doubtful whether they belonged originally to the poem or were later interpolations. But if I examine these endless reports for a real argument why the accused youth was guilty of the heinous crime, everything comes back after all to the statement constantly repeated that it would be "inconceivable that any man who was innocent of it should claim the infamy of guilt." I have before me still a collection of such specimens. 3 Münsterberg 1908; shortly after the publication of his book, he was mercilessly satirized by the celebrated evidence scholar John Wigmore, who put Münsterberg himself “on … Not every sworn statement is accepted as absolute reality. The self-sacrificing desire to exculpate others has played its rôle occasionally also. Yet I felt sure that he was innocent. The importance of what we call mortar luminance was realised by Fraser (1908). He said that these people's lives could be improved by counseling and medication in many cases. The Court would rather listen for whole days to the "science" of the handwriting experts than allow a witness to be examined with regard to his memory and his power of perception, his attention and his associations, his volition and his suggestibility, with methods which are in accord with the exact work of experimental psychology. No psychologist will deny this effect. This was one of the events that prompted Munsterberg to publish On the Witness Stand in 1908. Years ago his friend died; now arises the illusion that he has poisoned him. Hugo Münsterberg (/ ˈ m ʊ n s t ər b ɜːr ɡ /; June 1, 1863 – December 16, 1916) was a German-American psychologist.He was one of the pioneers in applied psychology, extending his research and theories to industrial/organizational (I/O), legal, medical, clinical, educational and business settings. The preeminent legal psychologist prior to Münsterberg’s arrival on the scene was probably William Stern, who published several papers on eyewitness memory (see e.g., Sporer, 1992; Stern, 1907-1908) and founded a journal devoted to the topic in 1903 (Beiträge zur Psychologie der Aussage or Contributions to the Psychology of Tes- timony). Of course, no one can suppose that children, fools, and tipsy men have a deeper insight into true relations than the sober and grown-up remainder of mankind. The Professor had spoken about a book. Münsterberg appeared in Boise armed with nearly 100 psychological tests (Münsterberg, 1908, Winter, 2012). He said, 'I saw the flash of steel in front of me. On the contrary, we could not fulfil the purposes of our life if we did not disburden our memory constantly of superfluous matter. The whole objective performance was cut up into fourteen little parts which referred partly to actions, partly to words. We do not want any directions from Harvard University irresponsibles for paltering still further." Münsterberg, HugoWORKS BY MüNSTERBERG [1]SUPPLEMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHY [2]Hugo Münsterberg (1863-1916) made his greatest contribution by applying psychology to practical situations in education, medicine, law, and business. We are too easily inclined to confuse the idea of truth in a subjective and in an objective sense. Inasmuch as he expects to spend the next twelve years at a place of residence where he will have little chance to read my writings, I may confess frankly that I liked the man. I think it does matter who may be the criminal -- whether the one whom they hanged or somebody else who is still to-day in freedom. His most pronounced defect seemed to them his lack of initiative. This book contains essays on psychology and crime and eyewitness testimony. It leads through all the affective states of the neurasthenic and other neurotic varieties. But he is expected to make up his mind as to whether the memory ideas of a witness are objective reproductions of earlier experience or are mixed up with associations and suggestions. But just those dark chapters of New England history can show us an abundance of other forms of confession which lead us step for step from [p. 146] well-balanced calculation to complete alienation, through all the borderland regions of mental confusion and disintegration. He was one of the pioneers in applied psychology, extending his research and theories to industrial/organizational (I/O), legal, medical, clinical, educational and business settings. In the Confait case in 1972 the English legal system had been shaken by a miscarriage of justice based on false confessions, another topic originally highlighted by Münsterberg. At that moment she felt it like a shock, his eye-glasses seemed to become large and uncanny, and from that moment on her consciousness was split and her remaining half-personality developed a pseudo-memory of its own. logical research (Münsterberg, 1908; others, such as Binet and Freud, made similar, albeit less forceful, recommendations). Has this perhaps depended on the nervous disposition of the crowd at various epochs? The relative value of the various conditions for exact recollection became really measurable. The Professor steps between them and, as he grasps the man's arm, the revolver goes off. The Case of Hugo Munsterberg.” ... Münsterberg, Hugo. The nearest relatives urged the unfortunate accused women to such confessions, seeing no other way of escape for them. ... ( 1908 ), was one of the coroner 's inquest is that of a! Mentally disordered cent., and only the courts have not yet discovered it a man what kind perjury... 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Hugo Munsterberg published a book entitled as “ on the Witness is ready not be! Become ineffective during sleep seriously protest nervous tension from the psychologists about individual differences than the philologians [ ]...

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