it is a lion

[231] The lion is also used as a symbol of sporting teams. Lions have... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples [133] Leopards are able to take refuge in trees; lionesses, however, occasionally attempt to retrieve leopard kills from trees. [128] When the lion population in Kenya's Masai Mara National Reserve declined, the spotted hyena population increased rapidly. Where an infrastructure for wildlife tourism has been developed, cash revenue for park management and local communities is a strong incentive for lion conservation. With a typical head-to-body length of 184–208 cm (72–82 in) they are larger than females at 160–184 cm (63–72 in). • LION (noun) The noun LION has 4 senses:. Lions are most active at night and live in a variety of habitats but prefer grassland, savanna, dense scrub, and open woodland. Directed by Jack Cardiff. [16] Field surveys in the WAP ecosystem revealed that lion occupancy is lowest in the W National Park, and higher in areas with permanent staff and thus better protection. [231] These deities were often connected with the sun god Ra and his fierce heat, and their dangerous power was invoked to guard people or sacred places. [91] Interactions between prides and nomads tend to be hostile, although pride females in estrus allow nomadic males to approach them. They occasionally also prey on larger animals, especially sick or injured ones, and eat found meat such as carrion. (1979). Intermittent bursts of activity continue until dawn, when hunting most often takes place. [126][127] Lion predation can account for up to 71% of hyena deaths in Etosha National Park. While some lions are nomadic and prefer to travel and hunt individually or in pairs, most lions live in a social organization known as a pride. [53][54][55][56] Accounts of a few individuals that were larger than average exist from Africa and India. Cultural depictions of lions were prominent in the Upper Paleolithic period; carvings and paintings from the Lascaux and Chauvet Caves in France have been dated to 17,000 years ago, and depictions have occurred in virtually all ancient and medieval cultures that coincided with the lion's former and current ranges. [64], Lions are part of a group of exotic animals that have been central to zoo exhibits since the late 18th century. [106] Lions kill other predators such as leopard, cheetah and spotted hyena but seldom consume them. "The Two-Way Process in the Age of Globalization", "Advertising Mascots—Animals—Leo the MGM Lion (MGM Studios)", https://archive.org/details/completeguidetoh00foxduoft, "Rare desert lion killed in Angola after supplying unprecedented data", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lion&oldid=995994821, National symbols of the Republic of the Congo, Articles with Latin-language sources (la), Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from Collier's Encyclopedia, Taxonbars with automatically added original combinations, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Historical and present distribution of the lion in. A lion may switch lifestyles; nomads can become residents and vice versa. Nomadic males must always secure their own food. [147] To avoid a buildup of scent attracting the attention of predators, the lioness moves her cubs to a new den site several times a month, carrying them one-by-one by the nape of the neck. [56] Carrion is thought to provide a large part of lion diet. [145] The average gestation period is around 110 days;[141] the female gives birth to a litter of between one and four cubs in a secluded den, which may be a thicket, a reed-bed, a cave, or some other sheltered area, usually away from the pride. Another hybrid that is uncommon is the Leopon. This allowed him to slip through to the lion’s cage. II: Vocal tract characteristics", "The status of savanna carnivores in the Odzala-Kokoua National Park, northern Republic of Congo", "Determinants of distribution patterns and management needs in a critically endangered lion, "Hidden population of up to 200 lions found in remote Ethiopia", "Lions rediscovered in Ethiopia's Alatash National Park", "Lion population roars to 650 in Gujarat forests", "Tired of Gujarat reluctance on Gir lions, MP to release tigers in Kuno", "Stalemate on translocation of Gir lions Kuno Palpur in Madhya Pradesh to be used as tiger habitat now", "Using ancient DNA techniques to identify the origin of unprovenanced museum specimens, as illustrated by the identification of a 19th century lion from Amsterdam", "Evidence for African origins of founders of the Asiatic lion Species Survival Plan", "Genetic management of Captive Populations", "Multi-institutional survey of social, management, husbandry and environmental factors for the SSP African lion Panthera leo population: examining the effects of a breeding moratorium in relation to reproductive success", "Medieval Lion Skulls Reveal Secrets of Tower of London "Zoo, "Killer of Cecil the lion finds out that he is a target now, of internet vigilantism", "Tooth Breakage and Dental Disease as Causes of Carnivore–Human Conflicts", 10.1644/1545-1542(2003)084<0190:TBADDA>2.0.CO;2, 10.2982/0012-8317(2001)90[1:TSOMAL]2.0.CO;2, "Fear of Darkness, the Full Moon and the Nocturnal Ecology of African Lions", "The Aston Villa Crest: 2007 Onwards ...". [88], Some lions are "nomads" that range widely and move around sporadically, either in pairs or alone. [68] Increased testosterone may be the cause of maned lionesses reported in northern Botswana. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Male tolerance of the cubs varies—one male could patiently let the cubs play with his tail or his mane, while another may snarl and bat the cubs away. [55] Some rulers had the word "lion" in their nickname. Can his ally Tatu save him in time? [237] In some cultures, the lion symbolises power and royalty. ‘A stone lion's head, which seems to float above a potted plant, drips water into the pool.’ ‘She noticed an intricately carved, roaring lion's head was at the end of the banister.’ ‘The crowd roars like a lion in a cage.’ ‘Apparently they don't even have the delightful touch farm and lion enclosure anymore.’ Cases in Lindi in which lions seize humans from the centres of substantial villages have been documented. Leroi-Gourhan, A., Allain J. Retaliation is the primary reason for lion killings. We work with communities to help them realize the big cats value and to help them protect their families and livestock from carnivore predation. [258] The Nemean lion was symbolic in ancient Greece and Rome, represented as the constellation and zodiac sign Leo, and described in mythology, where it was killed and worn by the hero Heracles,[259] symbolising victory over death. [229], The lion is one of the most widely recognised animal symbols in human culture. On hot days, the pride retreats to shade with one or two males standing guard. [169] Head rubbing—nuzzling the forehead, face and neck against another lion—appears to be a form of greeting[170] and is seen often after an animal has been apart from others or after a fight or confrontation. It has been listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 1996 because populations in African countries have declined by about 43% since the early 1990s. Upper Paleolithic cave painting depicting cave lions. [165] Feline immunodeficiency virus and lentivirus also affect captive lions. [84], The lion is the most social of all wild felid species, living in groups of related individuals with their offspring. [151] Cubs also die from starvation and abandonment, and predation by leopards, hyenas and wild dogs. [238], In parts of West Africa, lions symbolised the top class of their social hierarchies. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. [249] Singh is an ancient Indian vedic name meaning "lion", dating back over 2,000 years. In Kenya, when young Tina befriends a lion and embraces local customs, her mother summons Tina's American father to help bring Tina back to civilization and give her a civilized upbringing. The lion is a large mammal of the Felidae family. [72], African lions live in scattered populations across Sub-Saharan Africa. Groups of females, for example, hunt more effectively and are better able to defend cubs against infanticidal males and their hunting territory against other females. During withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which may cause ovulation. The word 'lion' is derived from Latin: leo[4] and Ancient Greek: λέων (leon). [219], The Maasai people have traditionally viewed the killing of lions as a rite of passage. Lions have yellowish fur, and male lions have long hair on their head and neck. Each pride has a well-defined territory consisting of a core area that is strictly defended against intruding lions and a fringe area where some overlap is tolerated. Some prides have been known to use the same territory for decades, passing the area on between females. Lions most often roar at night, a sound that can be heard from a distance of 8 kilometres (5.0 mi). A full-grown male is about 1.8–2.1 metres (6–7 feet) long, excluding the 1-metre tail; he stands about 1.2 metres high at the shoulder and weighs 170–230 kg (370–500 pounds). [247], Indo-Persian chroniclers regarded the lion as keeper of order in the realm of animals. [241] Lions were among the major symbols of the goddess Inanna/Ishtar. Carvings and paintings of lions discovered in the Lascaux and Chauvet Caves in France have been dated to 15,000 to 17,000 years old. [91], Lions scavenge on carrion when the opportunity arises; they scavenge animals dead from natural causes such as disease or those that were killed by other predators. See more. [218] In Ancient Rome, lions were kept by emperors for hunts as well as gladiator fights and executions. [75][76][77], In southern Europe and Asia, the lion once ranged in regions where climatic conditions supported an abundance of prey. The tuft is absent at birth and develops at around ​5.mw-parser-output .sr-only{border:0;clip:rect(0,0,0,0);height:1px;margin:-1px;overflow:hidden;padding:0;position:absolute;width:1px;white-space:nowrap} 1⁄2 months of age. Lion depredation on livestock is significantly reduced in areas where herders keep livestock in improved enclosures. [146] Lion cubs are born blind; their eyes open around seven days after birth. The earliest surviving record of lion hunting is an ancient Egyptian inscription dated circa 1380 BC that mentions Pharaoh Amenhotep III killing 102 lions "with his own arrows" during the first ten years of his rule. Another 11 animals thought to be Barbary lions kept in Addis Ababa Zoo are descendants of animals owned by Emperor Haile Selassie. The length and color of a lion's mane is likely determined by age, genetics and hormones. It is usually more diurnal than other big cats, but when persecuted it adapts to being active at night and at twilight. Wij bieden oplossingen op maat, naadloos afgestemd op elk budget, bedrijfsgrootte of type onderneming. This result suggested that the taxonomic position of lions in Central Africa may require revision. Lion, (Panthera leo), large, powerfully built cat (family Felidae) that is second in size only to the tiger. [29][38][39] The modern lion was probably widely distributed in Africa during the Middle Pleistocene and started to diverge in sub-Saharan Africa during the Late Pleistocene. [7] Panthera is phonetically similar to the Sanskrit word पाण्डर pând-ara meaning 'pale yellow, whitish, white'. In some lions the mane and fringe are very dark, almost black, giving the cat a majestic appearance. [52] It lived in Palestine until the Middle Ages, and in Southwest Asia until the late 19th century. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Some individuals consistently lead the defence against intruders, while others lag behind. A pride is a group of lions that live together. Manes make male lions look larger than they really are, which may function to intimidate rivals and impress prospective mates. A lion is a large wild member of the cat family that is found in Africa. [94] In Kruger National Park, dispersing male lions move more than 25 km (16 mi) away from their natal pride in search of their own territory. The mane is typically brownish and tinged with yellow, rust and black hairs. ", "Genetic insights into dispersal distance and disperser fitness of African lions (, "Complex cooperative strategies in group-territorial African lions", "Selfish partners: resource partitioning in male coalitions of Asiatic lions", "Refined techniques for the analysis of Asiatic lion, https://africageographic.com/stories/beach-lions-hunting-seals-coastal-birds-namibia-35-years/, "Lion predation on elephants in the Savuti, Chobe National Park, Botswana", "Cooperative hunting in lions: the role of the individual", "Lion hunting behaviour and vegetation structure in an African savanna", "Prey preferences of the spotted hyaena (, "Interspecific competition and the population biology of extinction-prone carnivores", "To kill, stay or flee: the effects of lions and landscape factors on habitat and kill site selection of cheetahs in South Africa", "Predator–prey relationships among the larger mammals of the Kruger National Park", "Distemper: not a new disease in lions and tigers", "A canine distemper epidemic in Serengeti lions (, "Lentivirus infection in an African lion: a clinical, pathologic and virologic study", "An acoustic analysis of lion roars. They also kill prey by enclosing its mouth and nostrils in their jaws. [239] The founder of the Waalo kingdom is said to have been raised by lions and returned to his people part-lion to unite them using the knowledge he learned from the lions. [9][35][36] [225] Sick or injured animals may be more prone to man-eating but the behaviour is not unusual, nor necessarily aberrant. [103] In India, sambar deer and chital are the most commonly recorded wild prey,[48][103][104] while domestic livestock may contribute significantly to their diet. They weigh 1.2–2.1 kg (2.6–4.6 lb) at birth and are almost helpless, beginning to crawl a day or two after birth and walking around three weeks of age. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? [62][63] Cool ambient temperature in European and North American zoos may result in a heavier mane. [104] They usually avoid fully grown adult elephants, rhinoceroses and hippopotamus, as well as small prey like dik-dik, hyrax, hare and monkey. They shared a common ancestor probably between 98,000 and 52,000 years ago. Lions proclaim their territory by roaring and by scent marking. [195][191] Some consider the presence of lions a benefit, as they keep populations of crop damaging herbivores in check. [146] Sometimes this introduction to pride life occurs earlier, particularly if other lionesses have given birth at about the same time. [85] Pairs are more frequent among related males who have been excluded from their birth pride. Its fur varies in colour from light buff to silvery grey, yellowish red and dark brown. LION, in the LinkedIn world, stands for Linked In Open Networker.LIONs are basically open to networking with people that they have never met before, and they are important in the fact that they bridge networks of closed people. Lions have disappeared from North Africa and southwest Asia in historic times. A whole genome-wide sequence of lion samples showed that samples from West Africa shared alleles with samples from Southern Africa, and samples from Central Africa shared alleles with samples from Asia. (astrology) a person who is born while the sun is in Leo. Lions also hunt common warthog depending on availability, although the species is below the preferred weight range. With William Holden, Trevor Howard, Capucine, Pamela Franklin. Lion populations are untenable outside designated protected areas. Between 2008 and 2016, IUCN Red List assessors used only two subspecific names: P. l. leo for African lion populations and P. l. persica for the Asiatic lion population. [149], Pride lionesses often synchronise their reproductive cycles and communal rearing and suckling of the young, which suckle indiscriminately from any or all of the nursing females in the pride. Egyptian deities associated with lions include Sekhmet, Bast, Mafdet, Menhit, Pakhet and Tefnut. A male lion is the only cat with a mane; some scientists believed its function was to protect an animal’s neck during fights. [100], The lion is a generalist hypercarnivore[101] and is considered to be both an apex and keystone predator due to its wide prey spectrum. The lion has been depicted as "king of the jungle" and "king of beasts", and thus became a popular symbol for royalty and stateliness. The proverbial “king of beasts,” the lion has been one of the best-known wild animals since earliest times. [98] The male or males associated with the pride must defend their relationship with the pride from outside males who may attempt to usurp them. [97] Alternatively, there may be rewards associated with being a leader that fends off intruders; the rank of lionesses in the pride is reflected in these responses. They spread from France and Italy during the Renaissance to the rest of Europe. [69], The white lion is a rare morph with a genetic condition called leucism which is caused by a double recessive allele. [37] [14] It may have evolved around 320,000–190,000 years ago. [88] The average pride consists of around 15 lions, including several adult females and up to four males and their cubs of both sexes. [194], The presence of numerous human habitations close to the National Park results in conflict between lions, local people and their livestock. [121], Lions and spotted hyenas occupy a similar ecological niche and where they coexist they compete for prey and carrion; a review of data across several studies indicates a dietary overlap of 58.6%. [131] A study in the Serengeti ecosystem revealed that lions killed at least 17 of 125 cheetah cubs born between 1987 and 1990. [197][198], Lions imported to Europe before the middle of the 19th century were possibly foremost Barbary lions from North Africa, or Cape lions from Southern Africa. Barry Jenkins is a surprisin choice to make a Lion King movie but the director explained the three factors that concvinced him to take on the project. Increased hunting success appears to be an obvious reason, but this is uncertain upon examination; coordinated hunting allows for more successful predation but also ensures non-hunting members reduce per capita calorific intake. Where prey is abundant, a territory area may be as small as 20 square km (8 square miles), but if game is sparse, it may cover up to 400 square km. [154][155], Although adult lions have no natural predators, evidence suggests most die violently from attacks by humans or other lions. [91], Asiatic lion prides differ in group composition. The North American mountain lion is a completely separate species, and not a true lion. Lion definition, a large, usually tawny-yellow cat, Panthera leo, native to Africa and southern Asia, having a tufted tail and, in the male, a large mane. If prey is abundant, both sexes typically spend 21 to 22 hours a day resting, sleeping, or sitting and hunt for only 2 or 3 hours a day. The Assyrians would release captive lions in a reserved space for the king to hunt; this event would be watched by spectators as the king and his men, on horseback or chariots, killed the lions with arrows and spears. The reasons for the development of sociality in lionesses—the most pronounced in any cat species—are the subject of much debate. "The late miocene radiation of modern Felidae: A genetic assessment", "Phylogeny and evolution of cats (Felidae)". Lionesses living in open savanna do most of the hunting, whereas males typically appropriate their meals from the female’s kills. [1] 25 years later, he sets out to find his lost family. [244] The Lion Hunt of Ashurbanipal is a famous sequence of Assyrian palace reliefs from c. 640 BC, now in the British Museum. [66] Maneless lions have also been reported in Senegal, in Sudan's Dinder National Park and in Tsavo East National Park, Kenya. [257] The lion is featured in several of Aesop's fables, notably The Lion and the Mouse. [238] In more heavily forested areas where lions were rare, the leopard represented the top of the hierarchy. [137][91] Up to 80% of lion cubs will die before the age of two. A lioness (left) and two males in Masai Mara, Four lionesses catching a buffalo in the Serengeti, Lioness stealing a kill from a leopard in Kruger National Park. Lions usually hunt and eat medium-sized to large hoofed animals like wildebeests, zebras, and antelopes. [74] In the 1960s, it became extinct in North Africa, except in the southern part of Sudan. [204], About 77% of the captive lions registered in the International Species Information System in 2006 were of unknown origin; these animals might have carried genes that are extinct in the wild and may therefore be important to the maintenance of the overall genetic variability of the lion. Other benefits include possible kin selection; sharing food within the family; protecting the young, maintaining territory and individual insurance against injury and hunger. [201], In 1982, the Association of Zoos and Aquariums started a Species Survival Plan for the Asiatic lion to increase its chances of survival. Pharrell says it is a "crime" that artists don't always have "the lion’s share" of their music. c. A noted person; a celebrity: a literary lion. Spotted hyenas have adapted by frequently mobbing lions that enter their territories. The group may consist of as few as 4 or as many as 37 members, but about 15 is the average size. [142][143] A lioness may mate with more than one male when she is in heat. What is a LinkedIn LION? [171] Social licking often occurs in tandem with head rubbing; it is generally mutual and the recipient appears to express pleasure. Lions prey on a large variety of animals ranging in size from rodents and baboons to Cape (or African) buffalo and hippopotamuses, but they predominantly hunt medium- to large-sized hoofed animals such as wildebeests, zebras, and antelopes.

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